Monotypic. Breeds from Northern Europe as far east at least as the River Yenisey, possibly as far as the River Khatanga in Russia (Approx. 102° East). Partly sympatric with Melanitta nigra.
Ref.: Martin Collinson, David T. Parkin, Alan G. Knox, George Sangster and Andreas J. Helbig. Species limits within the genus Melanitta, the
scoters. British Birds 99: 183-201.